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Exercise and Physical Fitness

Regular exercise is one of the best things you can do for your health. It has many benefits, including improving your overall health and fitness, and reducing your risk for many chronic diseases. There are many different types of exercise; it is important that you pick the right types for you. Most people benefit from a combination of them:

  • Endurance, or aerobic, activities increase your breathing and heart rate. They keep your heart, lungs, and circulatory system healthy and improve your overall fitness. Examples include brisk walking, jogging, swimming, and biking.
  • Strength, or resistance training, exercises make your muscles stronger. Some examples are lifting weights and using a resistance band.
  • Balance exercises can make it easier to walk on uneven surfaces and help prevent falls. To improve your balance, try tai chi or exercises like standing on one leg.
  • Flexibility exercises stretch your muscles and can help your body stay limber. Yoga and doing various stretches can make you more flexible.

Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at first. But you can start slowly, and break your exercise time into chunks. Even doing ten minutes at a time is fine. You can work your way up to doing the recommended amount of exercise. How much exercise you need depends on your age and health.

Other things that you can do to make the most of your workouts include:

  • Choosing activities that work all the different parts of the body, including your core (muscles around your back, abdomen, and pelvis). Good core strength improves balance and stability and helps to prevent lower back injury.
  • Choosing activities that you enjoy. It's easier to make exercise a regular part of your life if you have fun doing it.
  • Exercising safely, with proper equipment, to prevent injuries. Also, listen to your body and don't overdo it.
  • Giving yourself goals. The goals should challenge you, but also be realistic. It's also helpful to reward yourself when you reach your goals. The rewards could be something big, like new workout gear, or something smaller, such as movie tickets.


A fracture is a break, usually in a bone. If the broken bone punctures the skin, it is called an open or compound fracture. Fractures commonly happen because of car accidents, falls, or sports injuries. Other causes are low bone density and osteoporosis, which cause weakening of the bones. Overuse can cause stress fractures, which are very small cracks in the bone.

Symptoms of a fracture are:

  • Intense pain
  • Deformity - the limb looks out of place
  • Swelling, bruising, or tenderness around the injury
  • Numbness and tingling
  • Problems moving a limb

You need to get medical care right away for any fracture. An x-ray can tell if your bone is broken. You may need to wear a cast or splint. Sometimes you need surgery to put in plates, pins or screws to keep the bone in place.

Healthy Aging

People in the U.S. are living longer, and the number of older adults in the population is growing. As we age, our minds and bodies change. Having a healthy lifestyle can help you deal with those changes. It may also prevent some health problems and help you to make the most of your life.

A healthy lifestyle for older adults includes:

  • Healthy eating. As you age, your dietary needs may change. You may need fewer calories, but you still need to get enough nutrients. A healthy eating plan includes
    • Eating foods that give you lots of nutrients without a lot of extra calories. This includes fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean meats, low-fat dairy, nuts, and seeds.
    • Avoiding empty calories, such as foods like chips, candy, baked goods, soda, and alcohol
    • Eating foods that are low in cholesterol and fat
    • Drinking enough liquids, so you don't get dehydrated
  • Regular physical activity. Being physically active may help you maintain a healthy weight and avoid chronic health problems. If you have not been active, you can start slowly and work up to your goal. How much exercise you need depends on your age and health. Check with your health care provider on what is right for you.
  • Staying at a healthy weight. Being either overweight or underweight can lead to health problems. Ask your health care professional what a healthy weight for you may be. Healthy eating and exercise can help you get to that weight.
  • Keeping your mind active. Lots of activities can keep your mind active and improve your memory, including learning new skills, reading, and playing games.
  • Making your mental health a priority. Work on improving your mental health, for example by practicing mediation, relaxation techniques, or gratitude. Know the warning signs of a problem and ask for help if you are struggling.
  • Participating in activities that you enjoy. People who are involved in hobbies and social and leisure activities may be at lower risk for some health problems. Doing things that you enjoy may help you feel happier and improve your thinking abilities.
  • Playing an active role in your health care. Make sure that you get regular checkups and the health screenings that you need. You should know which medicines you are taking, why you need them, and how to take them properly.
  • Not smoking. If you are a smoker, quitting is one of the most important things that you can do for your health. It can lower your risk of several different types of cancer, certain lung diseases, and heart disease.
  • Taking steps to prevent falls. Older adults have a higher risk of falling. They are also more likely to fracture (break) a bone when they fall. Getting regular eye checkups, getting regular physical activity, and making your house safer can lower your risk of falling.

Following these tips can help you to stay healthy as you age. Even if you have never done them before, it's never too late to start taking care of your health. If you have questions about these lifestyle changes or need help figuring out how to make them, ask your health care provider.


What is osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a disease in which your bones become weak and are likely to fracture (break). The disease can develop when your bone mineral density and bone mass decrease. It can also happen if the structure and strength of your bones change.

Osteoporosis is called a "silent" disease because it doesn't usually cause symptoms. You may not even know you have the disease until you break a bone. This could happen with any bone, but it's most common in the bones of your hip, vertebrae in the spine, and wrist.

What causes osteoporosis?

Your bones are made of living tissue. To keep them strong, your body breaks down old bone and replaces it with new bone. Osteoporosis develops when more bone is broken down than replaced. You lose bone mass and changes happen in the structure of your bone tissue. This can happen as you get older. Other risk factors can also lead to the development of osteoporosis or increase your chance of developing the disease.

Who is more likely to develop osteoporosis?

Anyone can develop osteoporosis, but you are more likely to develop it if you have one or more of risk factors:

  • Your sex. Osteoporosis is more common in women.
  • Your age. Your risk increases as you get older. It is most common in people over age 50.
  • Your body size. It is more common in people who are slim and thin boned.
  • Your race:
    • White and Asian women are at highest risk.
    • African American and Mexican American women have a lower risk.
    • White men are at higher risk than African American and Mexican American men.
  • Family history. Your risk of osteoporosis may be higher if one of your parents has osteoporosis or broke their hip.
  • Changes to hormones. Low levels of certain hormones can increase your chance of developing osteoporosis.
  • Diet. A diet that is low in calcium and/or vitamin D or does not include enough protein can raise your risk.
  • Long-term use of certain medicines, such as:
    • Corticosteroids
    • Proton pump inhibitors (which treat GERD)
    • Medicines to treat epilepsy
  • Having other medical conditions, such as:
    • Endocrine diseases
    • Certain digestive diseases
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Certain types of cancer
    • HIV
    • Anorexia nervosa, a type of eating disorder
  • Your lifestyle. Certain lifestyle factors can contribute to bone loss, such as:
    • Smoking tobacco
    • Long-term heavy alcohol use
    • Physical inactivity or prolonged periods of bedrest
What are the symptoms of osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis usually doesn't cause symptoms. You may not know that you have it until you break a bone.

How is osteoporosis diagnosed?

Health care providers usually diagnose osteoporosis during routine screening for the disease. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening for:

  • Women over age 65
  • Women of any age who have factors that increase the chance of developing osteoporosis

The Task Force does not recommend regular screening for men.

To find out if you have osteoporosis, your provider:

  • Will ask about your medical history and whether you have ever broken a bone
  • May do a physical exam, which could include checking for:
    • A loss of height and/or weight
    • Changes in your posture
    • Balance and gait (the way you walk)
    • Your muscle strength
  • Will likely order a bone density scan
What are the treatments for osteoporosis?

The goals for treating osteoporosis are to slow or stop bone loss and to prevent fractures. Your provider may recommend:

  • A healthy, balanced diet that includes enough calcium, vitamin D, and protein
  • Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and limiting alcohol
  • Regular physical activity
  • Fall prevention to help prevent fractures
  • Medicines, such as:
    • Medicines that slow down bone loss
    • Medicines that help rebuild bone

In addition to managing your osteoporosis, it's important to avoid activities that may cause a fracture. These can include movements that involve:

  • Twisting your spine, like swinging a golf club
  • Bending forward from the waist, like sit ups and toe touches

You can also help reduce the risk of breaking a bone by preventing falls.

Can osteoporosis be prevented?

To help keep bones strong and help prevent osteoporosis, the best thing to do is to eat a healthy diet rich in calcium and vitamin D. Getting regular physical activity, limiting alcohol, and not smoking can also help.

NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

Seasonal Affective Disorder

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that comes and goes with the seasons. It usually starts in the late fall and early winter and goes away during the spring and summer. Some people do have episodes of depression that start in the spring or summer, but that is a lot less common. Symptoms of SAD may include:

  • Sadness
  • Gloomy outlook
  • Feeling hopeless, worthless, and irritable
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in activities you used to enjoy
  • Low energy
  • Difficulty sleeping or oversleeping
  • Carbohydrate cravings and weight gain
  • Thoughts of death or suicide

SAD is more common in women, young people, and those who live far from the equator. You are also more likely to have SAD if you or your family members have depression.

The exact causes of SAD are unknown. Researchers have found that people with SAD may have an imbalance of serotonin, a brain chemical that affects your mood. Their bodies also make too much melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep, and not enough vitamin D.

The main treatment for SAD is light therapy. The idea behind light therapy is to replace the sunshine that you miss during the fall and winter months. You sit in front of a light therapy box every morning to get daily exposure to bright, artificial light. But some people with SAD do not respond to light therapy alone. Antidepressant medicines and talk therapy can reduce SAD symptoms, either alone or combined with light therapy.

NIH: National Institute of Mental Health